This unit contains three main components (accessible below Contents):
- Preparing the Learner
- Interacting with Texts / Concepts
- Extending Understanding
- Students will understand and compare information from historic maps to achieve shared knowledge.
- Students will analyze historic paintings by interpreting the point of view to build a shared knowledge.
- Students will collaboratively interpret the graphic novel by analyzing the text and images and the cyclical presentation of time.
- Students will collaboratively make a claim supported with evidence.
- How might a people survive and grow in the face of evil and injustice?
- Why are multiple voices and perspectives important when learning about history?
- Should frontiers or borderlands be walls to keep people out or places for people to meet?
- Is history complicated? Is violence simple? (paraphrasing quote from Ghost River)
- Grade 6-11
- English Learner levels 1.5 - 2
- CC.8.5.9-10.D: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
- CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
- CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.3: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
- CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
- C3 D2. His.1.9-12. Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts
In 1701, William Penn promised a diverse group of Native Americans (Susquehannock, Seneca, Delaware, and Shawnee) that they would have a home in Pennsylvania. The agreement with the people who became known as the Conestoga included 500 acres along the Susquehanna River in southwestern Lancaster County. That territory came to be known as Conestoga Manor (sometimes called "Conestoga Indiantown"). Some sixty years later, on December 14, 1763, the "Paxton Boys," a group of former militiamen, rode to the territory and murdered six Conestoga people and burned their longhouses. The local government moved the survivors to a workhouse (also called the "poor house") for protection. Instead, on December 27, the Paxton men returned and killed the remaining 14 Conestoga men, women and children. In early 1764, several hundred Paxton men marched east toward Philadelphia. They were met by Benjamin Franklin in Germantown, just north of Philadelphia, who convinced them to return home. None of the "Paxton Boys" were arrested or tried for the massacre of the Conestoga. The massacre led to an extensive debate amongst European-descended Pennsylvanians, some critical of the Paxton Boys and others quite sympathetic.
- Andrew Newman, "Treaty of Shackamaxon," Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia
- Daniel Richter, Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
- Timothy Shannon, "Native American-Pennsylvania Relations, 1754-89," Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia
- Patrick Spero, Frontier Country: The Politics of War in Early Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.
Student Materials (in order of application):
- Penn's Treaty with the Indians (1771-72)
- Penn Wampum Belt (1682 Shackamaxon treaty)
- Conestoga Manor (1717)
- A Map of Philadelphia and Parts Adjacent (1753)
- A Map of the Province of Pennsylvania (1756)
- To the Honorable Thomas Penn and Richard Penn (1770)
- A Plan of the City and Environs of Philadelphia (1777)
- Conestoga Indian Town Historical Marker (1924)
This unit was created during the 2019 Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History Teacher Seminar, "Native Peoples, Settlers, and European Empires in North America, 1600-1840" (July 28-August 3, 2019). Printable versions of materials are available on respective pages. You may also download the entire unit.