Account of the Indian murders, December 27, 1763 - 1
12016-10-31T04:40:24-07:00Will Fenton82bf9011a953584cd702d069a30cbdb6ef90650a72001D.A. Henderson's account of Indian murders2016-10-31T04:40:24-07:00Henderson, D.A.HC11-24104 (manuscript collection 1250, AA4.4)Philadelphia Yearly Meeting records (Vol. 4). Haverford College Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College.Manuscript, 4 pages.41Will Fenton82bf9011a953584cd702d069a30cbdb6ef90650a
12016-10-31T05:17:21-07:00Will Fenton82bf9011a953584cd702d069a30cbdb6ef90650aAccount of the Indian murders, December 27, 1763Will Fenton2D.A. Henderson's account of Indian murdersgallery2018-02-13T03:24:36-08:001763Henderson, D.A.Call Number: HC11-24104 (manuscript collection 1250, AA4.4)Available in the "Philadelphia Yearly Meeting records (Vol. 4)" in the Haverford College Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College.Haverford College Quaker and Special CollectionsWill Fenton82bf9011a953584cd702d069a30cbdb6ef90650a
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12017-03-29T05:45:14-07:00Early Condemnations7plain2019-08-31T06:33:09-07:00Accounts of the Paxton incident published between December 1763 and January 1764 did not look favorably upon the conduct of the Paxton Boys. Emphasizing the particulars of Indian violence and condemning the vigilantes’ violation of law and order, these early pamphlets shaped future critiques. Paxton apologists didn’t gain traction until the spring of 1764.
Governor Penn calls for the immediate arrest of the Paxton Boys in this proclamation. Printed on January 2, 1764, this broadside reflects the governor’s second condemnatory proclamation, the first printed on December 22, 1763, after their massacre at Conestoga Indiantown but before their attack on the Lancaster jailhouse.
This early account the Conestoga massacre anticipates arguments Franklin popularizes with Narrative. Read presents the Paxtons as the real savages, murderers who should suffer the punishment of the law. He holds that the Susquehannock are subjects of the crown and entitled to security, an argument less grounded in ethics than economics.
Benjamin Franklin’s influential pamphlet created a template for Paxton critiques. He emphasizes the need for law and order. Franklin also personalizes the Susquehannock by using their English names, describing familial relationships, and providing detailed accounts of their slaughter. Meanwhile, he condemns the Scotch-Irish frontiersmen as “CHRISTIAN WHITE SAVAGES.”
Published contemporaneously with Narrative, this pamphlet provides the first insinuations of Paxton apology. The author complains of “too general Approbation” of the killings, despite their being “contrary to the Laws of Nations.” The pamphlet’s appearance of impartiality earned it significant popularity: Serious Address was republished in four editions.
1media/brubaker cover iamge.jpg2020-08-30T18:41:29-07:00Lynching and Terrorism: The Paxton Boys2Jacqueline Katz, Wellesley High Schoolimage_header2020-03-05T05:54:56-08:00This lesson reviews contemporary definitions of terrorism and lynching and applies them to the massacre of the Conestoga people by the Paxton Boys in 1763. Students will learn vocabulary, read primary and secondary sources, and perform their own research using Digital Paxton. For assessment, have students create a pamphlet that applies what they learned.
Students will apply contemporary terms in new ways to the Paxton massacre.
Students will perform primary and secondary source research to analyze the massacre.
Students will produce a pamphlet that answers the essential questions and reflects the media of the time.
Historical Thinking Skills:
Analysis of Primary and Secondary Sources
Understanding Historical Context
Essential Questions: • Was the massacre of the Conestoga people a lynching? • Were the Paxton Boys terrorists?
Grade Level: Grades 8-12
Duration: 120 minutes
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.8: Evaluate an author's premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.9: Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
Teacher Background: Teachers should be familiar with the Paxton Boys and the massacre of the Conestoga people. Teachers should read Dr. Fenton's overview, browse Digital Paxton, and/or ask a librarian for help with the research excerpted in the lesson.
Have students define the word "lynching" and "terrorism" using the Worksheet Packet (pages 1-2 of packet).
Where have they heard these words before?
Do they know what they mean?
Review definitions with students, ensuring that each part of the definition is reviewed. For instance, it is key that terrorists have a political purpose—make sure students understand that they need to look for political reasons as they research. For lynching, the action must be extralegal and conducted by a mob of 2+ people (pages 3-4).
Show students the research graphic organizers (pages 7-8), and check that students understand that they have to find all the parts of the definition as they research.
Review Historical Context (pages 5-6). Set up the major players and locations. Only answer questions that are integral for understanding the sources. Do not answer the focus questions.
Have students read through the primary sources first to find answers to the essential questions (begins on page 10).
Have students read through the secondary sources. Struggling students may start with the secondary sources. Advanced students may skip the secondary (so they have to piece together the primary sources—a more difficult skill).
When students have completed the readings, review the Research Worksheet (page 9) to set up the online research. Depending upon the grade level, students may perform this research in-class or as homework. Once students can answer the focus questions with evidence, they may stop research.
Assessment: Have students create their own pamphlet that addresses the focus questions. (Other options might include a letter, account, discussion, op-ed, political cartoon, or poem.) Students should answer the questions using primary and secondary source materials. They may evaluate evidence the SPARC technique (SPARC Handout).